Chronology of Lisbon
Published by Simão Correia on 31/Oct/2015
From Alis Ubbo to Lisbon
Over time, the third oldest city in Europe to be continuously inhabited, assumed many faces. Marked by the passage of different people, also its name would be subject of a metamorphosis:
- Alis Ubbo, to the Phoenicians (1200 BC)
- Felicitas Ivlia Olisipo, during the Roman domain (205 BC)
- Ulishbona, at the time of the Visigoths (453 BC)
- Al-Ushbuna, Aschbouna ou Lishbuna to the Arabs (714 AD)
- Lisboa (in english, Lisbon), when Dom Afonso Henriques conquers the city to the Realm of Portugal, in .
Let's discover the most important events in Lisbon since , according to the Gregorian Calendar:
Conquest of Lisbon from the Moors
Lisbon became part of the Realm of Portugal on the October 21st, 1147, when the troops of D. Afonso Henriques conquered it to the Muslims. He had the help of a Crusaders armada of 164 ships that invaded through the Tagus River. The King would become known among his Muslim opponents by "El-Bortukali", meaning "The Portuguese.
Saint Anthony of Lisbon
On the August 15th, Saint Anthony is born in the actual Church of Saint Anthony, Alfama Neighborhood near to the Lisbon Cathedral. Son of Martinho de Bulhões and Maria Teresa Taveira, was baptized with the name Fernando de Bulhões. The annual popular festivities held in Lisbon on the night of the 12 to 13 of June, are made in honor of the Patron Saint of Lisbon.
Pope John XXI
Pedro Julião Rebolo or Pedro Hispano is born, son of Julião Pais Rebolo and Mor Mendes. Doctor, teacher and also a philosofer, he would become the only Portuguese Pope, adopting the name of John XXI.
Royal Palace of Alcáçova
The Royal Palace of Alcáçova becomes the official residence of the royal family in 1248, time when Dom Afonso III rises to the Portuguese throne and the court is moved permanently from Coimbra to Lisbon.
Lisbon, the capital of Portugal
Lisbon becomes the capital of Portugal in the year 1255, taking the place that belonged to Coimbra, during the reign of D. Afonso III, the Bolognese. In the fifth term of the reign of a Portuguese King, Lisbon is now the most important city. Until today, it is not known the existence of any document that would make official the switch of capital in Portugal.
The King D. Fernando I, the Handsome, decrees the construction of the Muralha Fernandina (En: Ferdinand Wall) with the aim of protecting Lisbon from the successive raids ordered by the King Henrique of Castela. The wall, also known as "Cerca Nova" (En: New Fence) or "Cerca Fernandina" (En: Ferdinand Fence), would be finished two years later.
Castilian siege to Lisbon
Lisboa is surrounded by the army of Castela during 4 months and 27 days. The offensive of the reign of Castela takes place due to the pretension for occupying the Portuguese throne after the death of D. Fernando I. The King doesn't have male progeny and his daughter Beatriz was promised in marriage to the son of King João I of Castela.
On the August 22nd, begins the era of the Portuguese discoveries with the conquest of Ceuta to the Muslims, in the north part of Africa. The Portuguese army was led to victory by the King D. João I, known by "Mestre de Avis" (En: Master of Avis). The construction of the Portuguese Empire had started.
King Dom João II
On the May 3rd is born the King D. João II, the Perfect Prince. His cognomen makes justice to a Man that was one of the best monarchs ever to rule Portugal. He would become a maritime expansionist of extreme relevancy, continuing the legacy of his grand-uncle, the Infant D. Henrique.
Royal Palace of Ribeira
Inícia-se a construção do Paço da Ribeira no actual local da Praça do Comércio. A Corte Real transitaria do Paço de Alcáçova, no Castelo de São Jorge para este palácio junto ao Rio Tejo e aqui permaneceria por até à destruição total do palácio durante o , cujas perdas foram equiparadas à Biblioteca de Alexandria.
The construction of the Jerónimos Monastery begins near the margin of the Tagus River. The build was required to the clergy of Lisbon by the monarch D. Manuel I in 1496, with the purpose of gathering in pantheon his dynastic ascendancy (2nd Dynasty or Dynasty of Avis).
Dom João III
On the June 6th the King D. João III is born, with the cognomen of "The Merciful" or "The Pious". A very religious man, the king would support the implementation of the Inquisition in Portugal during his reign.
King Dom Henrique I
On the January 31st is born the King Henrique I, known by "The Chast", "The Cardinal-King" or "The Eborense" (someone from the city of Évora). His cognomens come from a life mostly dedicated to church. The king would sit on the throne with 66 years old, unexpectedly, and would reign for less than two years.
Luís Vaz de Camões
Luís Vaz de Camões is born, one of the most prominent names of literature in Portugal. Later, he would lose his right eye during the war in the north part of Africa. He would become very known while writing Os Lusíadas, a literary piece of art which spread worldwide. The book was published when he returned from the Orient to Lisbon.
January 26th, Lisbon is targeted by a strong seismic activity, followed by a tsunami. The seism epicenter is located between Azambuja and Vila Franca de Xira. The city is partially destroyed and nearly 30 000 people in the region die.
King Dom Sebastião I
On the January 20th, D. Sebastião I is born, known as "The Hidden" or "The Asleep". He would be the seed of serious problems concerning the succession to the throne, after his presumable death in Alcácer Quibir. His body was never found and legend has it that he will return to Portugal on a foggy morning.
Lisbon suffers an outbreak of the Black Plague. Named Great Plague of Lisbon, the outbreak grows rapidly into a pandemic a kills about 600 people per day up to a total of 60 000 victims in the spring of the following year.
GOVERNANCE BY THE SPANISH MONARCHY (1580-1640)
Dom Filipe I, King of Portugal
The King D. Filipe II of Spain sits on the Portuguese throne with the title of D. Filipe I of Portugal. The two countries become one and the Portuguese reign loses independence. Begins the 3rd monarchic dynasty in Portugal.
End of the construction of the Jerónimos Monastery
A century after the beginning of the construction, the works in the Jerónimos Monastery end. Jerónimo Ruão was the responsible for comply with the final stage of construction of the monastery, ending with the building of the new chapel.
RESTORATION OF INDEPENDENCY
Beginning of the Restoration of the Independency
On the December 1st takes place a coup d'etat in Portugal. The Portuguese revolt against the yoke of the Spanish crown and expel the invaders which ruled for 60 years. D. João IV is proclaimed King of Portugal and begins the 4th monarchic dynasty of the nation.
Guerra da Restauração da Independência
Unfolds the Independence Restoration War during a period of 28 years. Portugal and Spain battle for the domain of the Portuguese, defended by D. João IV until 1656 and by D. Afonso VI until 1683.
Treaty of Lisbon
On the February 13th, the monarchs D. Afonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain gather in meeting. The Treaty of Lisbon that aims the ending of the Restoration War is signed. In it, the realm of Spain recognizes the independence of the Portuguese kingdom.
The Gazeta de Lisboa
It is published the first Portuguese official journal called "Gazeta de Lisboa" (En: Periodic of Lisbon). However, the first edition that came out on the August 10th appears with the name "Notícias do Estado do Mundo" (En: News of the State of the World").
Opens the first Masonic Store in Portugal. The establishment is founded by merchants from the United Kingdom that settled in Lisbon. In the records of the Inquisition the store appears mentioned as belonging to the "Heretics Merchants".
Águas Livres Aqueduct
Begins the construction of the Águas Livres Aqueduct by the royal order of D. João V. The objective is to provide the city of Lisbon with an efficient water supply system. The aqueduct would start to work in 1748, with a full length of 14 174 meters.
POMBAL PERIOD (1750-1777)
Lisbon falls victim of a very strong seism which would become known has the "Earthquake of 1755". The earthquake with epicenter in the Gorringe Bank (in the ocean) reaches 8.75 on the Richter scale and provokes the city's mass destruction. There are nearly 20 000 dead and hundreds of destroyed buildings.
In May it is created a working cabinet headed by the Marquis of Pombal in order to rebuild Lisbon. It becomes known has the "House of Risk of Public Works" and has the mission of rebuilding the city in an orderly way and preventing the spontaneous construction. It begins the construction of the Pombal Lisbon.
The Távoras Process
Dom Francisco Távora and his two children were executed in Belém for trying to murder the King Dom José I. The accusation never managed to prove the veracity of the facts and, hence, it is thought that everything was nothing more than a political and economical conspiracy against the Távora family.
It is created the "Aula do Comércio" (En: Class of Commerce) with the intention of graduating professionals in the area of accounting. The three-year course is developed under the reforms promoted by the Marquis of Pombal to gift the Portuguese traders. It is the first University in Europe concerning technical education.
Design of the Public Promenade
It begins the design of the Public Promenade under the aegis of the reconstruction of the downtown of Lisbon led by the Marquis of Pombal. This public equipment follows the urban tendency of the most modern European cities.
Tower of the Bugio Lighthouse
É construída a atual torre do Farol do Bugio no interior do Forte de São Lourenço. A torre anterior tinha sido destruída pelo Terramoto de . Na barra do Rio Tejo, assume a função de guiar os navios mercantes em segurança até ao Porto de Lisboa.
FRENCH INVASION (PENINSULAR WAR) 1807-1810
By the order of Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of the French Empire, a contingent of French and Spanish troops commanded by General Junot invades Portugal. The invasion takes place because Portugal refuses to adhere to the Continental Blockage imposed by France to the European countries to weaken the United Kingdom.
On the March 28th is born Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo, at Gil Patio - São Bento Street. He would become a reputated writer and investigation journalist in Portugal, with an active political career. He is the author of the writing work named "History of Portugal", elaborated between 1846 and 1853.
Pastéis de Belém
The "Pastéis de Belém" (Note: The most famous cake of Lisbon.) begun to be produced for sale, near the Jerónimos Monastery. Their origin dates back to 1834, when someone from the monastery started to sell them in a small shop of the vicinity. The cooking recipe is secret and is kept in the Workshop of the Secret of the Pastéis de Belém Factory.
In this decade, Fado is born at the Alfama Neighborhood, Lisbon. Exclusive singing style of Portugal, spreads rapidly to the taverns and cafes where it is sang by amateurs. This amateur singing way was nicknamed "Fado Vadio". The voice of the Fado singer Maria Severa becomes known.
The first spectacle-text of the Revues is realized on the January 11th. The play named "Lisbon in 1850" is performed in the Teatro do Ginásio (En: Gym Theater), Lisbon. The authorship belongs to Latino Coelho ans Francisco Palha.
José Joaquim Cesário Verde is born on the February 25th, at the extinct parish of Madalena. Artist of the words, he would become considered a major poetic reference for artists of the 20th century and to the one that would be called the "Orpheu Generation".
On the October 28th is inaugurated the first railway section of Lisbon. The section makes the connection between Lisbon and Carregado, being the first of the to be completed of the East Railway.
The Geological Committee of Portugal realizes a study entitled "The Supply of Lisbon - with spring water and river waters". Thirteen years later, the Steam Pumping Station of Barbadinhos would be ready to supply the crescent population of Lisbon with waters from the Alviela River.
António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona is born of the November 24th. He would become a relevant military and politician, assuming the positions of Minister of War, Minister of the Foreign Affairs, President of the Ministry (today, the position of Prime Minister) and President of the Republic, the first of the Estado Novo (En: New State).
First telephone communication
On the November 24th occur pioneer experiences concerning the telephone utilization. The phone call is successfully established and is made between the Estação do Cabo (En: Cable Station) in Lisbon and Carcavelos. Portugal has its first ever telephonic conversation.
It is made the first implementation of electricity in Lisbon. At Chiado Neighborhood are installed lighting globes that came from France, an invention of the Russian Pavel Yablochkov. These lamps operate based on a voltaic arc which uses coal as fuel.
Villages and working class neighborhoods.
It is held the "Industrial Survey of 1881", the first large-scale statistical work on the industrial base in Portugal. The Indirect Survey (questionnaire with 17 queries) proves fruitless, having been received with answers only 10% of the sent questionnaires.
On the April 19th opens the Lavra Elevator, the first in Lisbon. The two working carriages are responsible for the connection between the Anunciada Square and the Câmara Pestana Street. The project of this funicular transportation is from the authorship of the Portuguese engineer Raoul Ronson Mensier du Ponsard.
Port of Lisbon
The Great Works of the Port of Lisbon are inaugurated on the October 31st by the King D. Carlos I. The modernization of the port infrastructures of Lisbon becomes an imperative with a historic technological event: the appearance of the steam machine.
Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa is born on the June 13th, at Chiado Neighborhood. One of the biggest geniuses of Portuguese literature of all times, he would stand out in poetry due the creation of other poets with complex characters, his heteronyms. Among them, are highlighted Alberto Caeiro, Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis and Bernardo Soares.
Santa Rita Pintor
On the October 31st is born Gilherme Augusto Cau da Costa de Santa Rita. He would dedicate to the art of painting in which would be known by "Santa-Rira Pintor" (En: Santa-Rita Painter). The artist would be part of the Orpheu Generation. The painter's work would be almost totally burned by his express order on the deathbed.
Mário de Sá-Carneiro
Mário de Sá-Carneiro is born on the May 19th. He would become a famous writer of fiction, poems and tales of the Portuguese literature with references in Victor Hugo, Schiller and Goethe. Already in the 20th century he will be part of a generation of writers and artists known by the "Orpheu Generation".
The corporations Companhia Lisbonense de Iluminação e Gás and Companhia Gás de Lisboa merge and origin the Companhias Reunidas de Gás e Eletricidade (En: Reunited Companies of Gas and Electricity). To this new company, the Lisbon City Hall grants the concession to produce and distribute public electricity. The public illumination is born.
It is inaugurated the first tram route in Lisbon. The route is done from Cais do Sodré to Algés. To supply electricity to the new transport network was previously constructed a thermoelectric plant, known by "A Geradora" (En: The Generator).
Santa Justa Elevator
On the July 10th opens the Santa Justa Elevator, by the time known as the Ouro-Carmo Elevator. The elevator allows the connection between the Santa Justa Street and the Carmo Street which have a quota of 30 meters separating them. It is the unique case of a vertical elevator providing public service in the streets of Lisbon.
Circulate the first urban buses in Lisbon. These two French made vehicles have the capacity of 16 places each and the brand is Dion-Bouton. They are bought by the Companhia dos Ascensores de Lisboa (En: Company of Lisbon's Elevators) and do the route between Amoreiras and Estrela Square.
Cafe "A Brasileira"
The cafe "A Brasileira" (En: The Brazilian) opens on the November 19th at Chiado. This small business dedicates itself to the importation and commercialization of coffee from Brazil. Due to the location, it becomes a very attended place where people share and exchange ideas, in a time of great intellectual fervor.
On the February 1st the King D. Carlos I and the Heir Prince Luís Filipe are murdered. The regicide occurs at the west side of the Comércio Square when the king and prince were travelling in an open carriage. At that moment, it is triggered the shooting which spills the Portuguese royal blood at Terreiro do Paço.
FIRST PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC
Establishment of the Portuguese Republic
On the October 2nd begins a rebellion headed by the Portuguese Republican Party with the purpose of deposing the monarchic regime. Three days later, on the October 5th, happens the Establishment of the Portuguese Republic. End more than seven centuries of monarchic reigns, divided into four dynasties.
João Henrique Pereira Villaret is born on the May 10th. He would become a known actor, director, and reciter of poetic texts of the authorship of the most respected writers of the Portuguese literature.
It is published the "Revista Orpheu" (En: Orpheu Magazine) quarterly. Only two numbers came out due to finantial problems. Its influence was remarkable in the works of literary and artistic authors, known by the "Orpheu Generation". Among them, were Fernando Pessoa, Almada Negreiros, Mário de Sá Carneiro and Santa Rita-Pintor.
Amália da Piedade Rodrigues is born on the July 1st. Singer and actress, she'd be considered the major expression of Fado (Portuguese singing style). Amália would take worldwide the name of Portugal.
First air crossing of the South Atlantic
On the June 17th, Gago Coutinho and Sacadura Cabral complete the first South Atlantic air crossing when reaching the Guanabara Bay at Brazil. They had left from Lisbon on the July 30th. Obstacles during the journey extended the trip for 79 days, although, the flight time was only of 62 hours and 26 minutes.
First radio station
The Estação de Rádio de Lisboa (En: Radio Station of Lisbon) broadcasts for the first time under the indicative "CT1AA - Estação Rádio de Lisboa". The regular radio broadcasts restarted on the October 25th at 8 p.m., from the studio number 3 at the Carmo Street.
Military Coup of
On the May 29th, military and police forces of Lisbon adhere to the military movement initiated the day before in Braga city - known by "Military Coup of May 28th, 1926". The objective is to overthrow the democratic government in office. The coup is well succeeded and the First Portuguese Republic ends.
NEW STATE (SECOND PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC)
On the night of the June 12th is realized the first edition of the Popular Parades of Lisbon. The event occurs in the room of the Capitol and hosts the neighborhoods of Campo de Ourique, Bairro Alto and Alto do Pina.
Portuguese Constitution of 1933
The Portuguese Constitution of 1933 is published on the February 22nd and comes into force on the April 11th, directly supervised by António de Oliveira Salazar. The dictatorial regime of Estado Novo (En: New State) is legally legitimated.
Exhibition of the Portuguese World
Between the June 23rd and the December 2nd is held the Exhibition of the Portuguese World. It aims the double celebration of the Portuguese State Foundation - year 1140 - and the Restoration of the Portuguese Independency in 1640.
Portela Airport and Maritime Airport of Cabo Ruivo
It is inaugurated the Portela Airport on the October 15th and to diversify the airport services, is built the Maritime Airport of Cabo Ruivo. The pre existent infrastructure of the American air company Pan American World Airways is utilized.
The first highway in Portugal opens on the May 28th by the order of the engineer Duarte Pacheco, Minister of Public Works and Communications. The section of cement and gravel, between Lisbon and the National Stadium, reaches an extension of 8 Km.
RTP – Radio and Television of Portugal
On the February 4th at 9:30 p.m. are initiated the experimental television broadcasts of RTP (Radio and Television of Portugal), from the Feira Popular. This event happened with the technical support of Radio Corporation of America and the journal "O Século" (En: The Century).
The Lisbon Metropolitan opens on the December 29th. The line with 6,5 Km of length, is divided into two extensions that leave from the Marquês de Pombal Square, one towards Entre Campos and the other to Sete Rios. The subway stops in eleven stations.
On the December 15th, Eusébio da Silva Ferreira arrives Lisbon to sign a professional footballer contract by Sport Lisboa e Benfica. The player natural from Lourenço Marques city begins his glorious path in the world of the king of all sports.
War of the Overseas
Begins the Colonial War or War of the Overseas. The first clashes take place in Angola on the February 4th. Portugal sends troops to Africa and faces pro-independent troops in three fronts: Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau. The conflict would last 13 years.
It is inaugurated the Salazar Bridge. At the time, despite the name instituted in tribute to the President of the Council of Ministers, the legal name was in reality "Bridge over the Tagus". Four years later, the road link between Almada and Lisbon was concluded. Today, it is named "Bridge April 25th".
Seism of 1969
On the February 22nd at 2:40 a.m., Lisbon is shaken by a seism, the strongest of the 20th century. The epicenter is located in the sea, 181 Km from São Vicente Cape, in an area called Horseshoe Abyssal Plain. There were cuts in the electric power and communications.
Revolution of the
On the April 25th, occurs a military coup d'etat with the purpose of deposing the dictatorial regime of the Estado Novo (En: New State). The dissident act proves to be fruitful and peaceful, such is the adhesion of the common folk. In a gesture of peace, women came out to the streets and put carnation flowers in the guns of soldiers, therefore the revolution would become known by "Carnations Revolution".
Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
The Constitution of the Portuguese Republic is approved on the April 2nd and enters into force three days later, by the second anniversary of the Carnations Revolution. It was elaborated by the Constituent Assembly, elected one year earlier through a democratic process.
Treaty of the Economic European Community
On the June 12th, Mário Soares signs at the Jerónimos Monastery, the treaty which formalizes the adhesion of Portugal to the Economic European Community (today, the European Union). From the first day of January, 1986, Portugal would become an official member of the community.
Fire of Chiado
On the August 25th, near 5 a.m., begins the Fire of Chiado in the Grandella Warehouses. The flames spread to other constructions and destroy 18 buildings. An area with the size of 8 football fields burns and the Pombal Downtown becomes unrecognizable.
The first Internet Broadcast is performed by the University of Lisbon.
Vasco da Gama Bridge
On the March 29th is inaugurated the Vasco da Gama Bridge. With 17,3 Km totalizing the whole infrastructure, it crosses the Tagus River and allows the road link between Alcochete and Lisbon. The areas of Montijo and Sacavém are also served by the longest bridge of Europe.
Between May 22 and September 30, takes place the International Exhibition of Lisbon 1998 or Expo 98. With the motto "The oceans: a heritage for the future", the exhibition received 11 million visitors. The thematic mascot was called "Gil".
Portugal hosts the European Championship of Football. Lisbon welcomes nine matches shared by the Luz Stadium and the José de Alvalade Stadium. The game of the final is disputed on the July 4th between Portugal and Greece. On that day, Greece becomes the European Champion of Football for the first time.
Lisbon Treaty of the European Union
On the December 13th is signed the Treaty of Lisbon at the Jerónimos Monastery. Portugal, exercising the rotary position of the European Union Council Presidency, welcomes the other 26 member countries of the E.U. in an historic moment of political integration.